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Published Online: 1 March, 1969 | Supp Info: http://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.40.3.850 Downloaded from jcb.rupress.org on October 10, 2018
THE EFFECTS OF ACTINOMYCIN D ON PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND BEATING IN CULTURED RAT HEART CELLS RICHARD L. McCARL and ROBERT C. SHALER. From the Department of Biochemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. Dr. Shaler's present address is the Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213
INTRODUCTION Cultured rat heart cells grown as monolayers in tissue culture will beat for a period of time and eventually stop beating. This process of beating and then stopping has been designated as dedifferentiation (1). McCarl et al. (2) demonstrated in this laboratory that the addition of cortisol acetate to the culture medium, within 24 hr after the cells had stopped contracting, reinitiated the beating and maintained the beating for as long as 2 months, with frequent changes of medium for fresh medium. While the mechanism of cortisol action on the heart cells and its ability to prevent dedifferen-
tiation were being studied, it was observed that actinomycin-D treatment suggested the presence of one or more long-lived mRNA's in functioning cells. The presence of long-lived mRNA's ap-
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peared to be related to the beating phenomenon. Furthermore, it was observed that actinomycin D would cause restimulation of beating in cells which had stopped beating, but this occurred only if long-lived mRNA's were present as they were in the cells before the cells stopped beating. In cells which never beat or were incapable of stimulation to beat, the presence of long-lived mRNA's could not be demonstrated. MATERIALS
Heart cells were cultured and grown on 60 X 15 mm plastic disposable Petri dishes (Falcon Plastics, Division of B-D Laboratories, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif.) according to the method of Harary and Farley (3), except for a change in the protein of the growth medium. Bovine serum was substituted for human and fetal calf serum, and the remainder of the growth
medium was prepared by Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio. The medium was changed 24 hr before the addition of cortisol or actinomycin D. Actinomycin D was added to the growth medium in sufficient concentration to inhibit 95% of the RNA synthesis (10 g/ml growth me4 dium) as measured by 2-uridine- C (New England Nuclear Corp., Boston, Mass.) incorporation into acid-insoluble material. At the end of 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 56 hr of exposure to the antibiotic, the medium was decanted, and 2.0 ml of amino acid incorporating medium (complete growth medium minus serum protein and amino acids) containing 20 up1of 4C-labeled amino acids (New England Nuclear) was added to each Petri dish and incubated for 30 min at 37°C. After the incubation period, this medium was decanted, and the metabolism of the cells was stopped with ice-cold isotonic saline. The cells were scraped from the Petri dishes with a rubber policeman and were washed by centrifugation in cold isotonic saline. The cells were then resuspended in 1 ml of isotonic saline and homogenized in a 7 ml capacity Dounce homogenizer (Kontes Glass Co., Vineland, N.J.). An aliquot of the homogenate was used for protein analysis according to the method ot Oyama and Eagle (4), while another aliquot was used for the measurement of radioactivity. The radioactivity was measured by precipitating protein onto Millipore filters with cold 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and by washing the protein with hot (95 C) TCA, ethyl ether, and finally with ethyl alcohol. The filters were allowed to air dry overnight. When dry, they were placed into scintillation vials in 10 ml of toluene based scintillation fluid and counted in a Beckman model 200 LSB Instrument. The per
cent of beating in the heart cells was determined by the method of McCarl et al (2). RESULTS 8 hr after the addition of actinomycin D to cells, the incorporation of 2-uridine-4C was inhibited by an amount greater than 95%. The addition of puromycin (1 g/ml growth medium) to beating cells inhibited the beat in less than 24 hr (5). Fig. I illustrates the response of beating cultures to actinomycin D in terms of beating and protein synthesis. Within 8-16 hr after treatment, 80-85% of the protein synthesis is inhibited. From 24 to 48 hr there is a steady decline in the protein synthesis, but the decline is not as marked as in the initial hours of exposure to actinomycin D. The percentage of beating in the cells remains high until after 48 hr of treatment with the antibiotic. At this time the protein synthesis curve and the per cent beating curve parallel each other to a level of 10-15%. The effects of actinomycin D on cells which had stopped beating are illustrated in Fig. 2. The protein synthesis in this type of cell is similar to that illustrated in Fig. 1. There is an initial sharp drop followed by a steadily declining plateau which is followed by a final sharp drop in the protein synthesis. The beating curve, however, is much different. These cells were not beating at the time of treatment with the antibiotic, but within 8-16 hr
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FIGUoE I The effects of actinomycin D on protein synthesis and beating of actively beating cell cultures. Heart cells were treated with actinomycin D at zero time and exposed to the antibiotic for 56 hr. At 8-hr intervals the cells were examined microscopically for per cent beating and were exposed to the amino acids14C for 30 min to measure protein ---, amino acidsynthesis. 14C incorporation; - - - -, per cent beating = No. of beating areas observed/total areas observed (10 random areas on 10 different plates) X 100.
E i t
1-e , 000
HOURS AFTERADDITION OF ACTINOMYCIN
75 1,ooo 5
0- -- 0, per cent beating = No. of beating areas observed/Total areas observed (10 random areas on 10 different plates) X 100.
FIGeIRE 2 The effects of actinoinycin D on protein synthesis and on beating of cells which had been beat ing but which had stopped beating at the time of additions. *--O,
HOURS AFTER ADDOOITION OF ACTINOMYCIN O
FIGJRE 3 The effects of actinolnycin D on protein synthesis and beating of cells which had never beaten. 0· ----, amino acidl 14C incorporation; 0---, per cent beating = No. of beating areas observed/Total areas observed (10 random areas on 10 different plates) X 100.
HOURS AFTER ADOITION OF CTINOMYCIN O
(the time corresponding to the first drop in the protein synthesis in the cells) the cells are restimulated to beat. The beating reaches a maximum during the plateau portion of the protein synthesis curve and then falls, as does the protein synthesis in the third phase of the curve. Cells which did not beat or were incapable of stimulation to beat responded to actinomycin D in the manner depicted by Fig. 3. In this case, the protein synthesis curve does not follow the same pattern as observed for the two previous cases.
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Instead of the three distinctive portions of the curve, there is only a steady decline. It must be noted, in this case, that there is no restimulation of the beating by either cortisol or actinomycin 1) and that the incorporation of amino acids is much less over the whole period; actually, all activity reaches background levels after 24 hr. The suggestion that these cells may actually be in a pathological state cannot be ruled out. However, cells with these characteristics are found too frequently to be insignificant or forgotten.
DISCUSSION Primary cultures of rat heart cells will beat for extended periods of time and, like other primary cell lines, are no doubt composed of different cell types. Unlike many other cell lines, they possess functional (beating) cells which can be identified by the rhythmic movement of the individual cells or cluster of cells when observed by light microscopy. No attempt was made to identify cell types; however, it is assumed that the beating cells are cardiac muscle cells. Although the beating response is the net result of many reactions and events, the beating per se is a single observable event, and environmental changes or drug treatment causing changes in the beat rate or the initiation or cessation of beat can be reported. Our cultured rat heart cells behave very much like those reported by Harary and Farley (3), i.e. they beat for a period of time and then stop beating. In a few instances the cells never beat, nor are they capable of being stimulated to beat. Differences in the length of time that cells will initially beat in culture, or the reasons why they may never beat, could be due to many factors, e.g. variation in the numbers of animals cultured of a certain age and sex and the actual number of animals cultured. It is unlikely that these differences arise from nutritional or environmental changes during culture, since all of these studies were performed with the same batch of growth medium, which was composed of pooled serum; and similar incubator conditions were maintained in all instances. McCarl et al. (2) reported that the addition of cortisol acetate to the growth medium of cells which had stopped beating would reinitiate the cells to beat within 24 hr and sustain the beating for many weeks. Many other substances will also cause cells to beat but only for a comparatively short period of time. Because of the low solubility of cortisol acetate and consequently its low concentration in the growth medium, quite probably cortisol acts as a hormone or some other regulatory substance on energy-producing reactions or protein-synthesizing reactions essential for beating rather than being a substrate for energy production. In order to determine more clearly the site of action of cortisol, protein-synthesizing inhibitors were added to (a) beating cells, (b) beating cells which had stopped beating, and (c) cells which had never shown beating in culture with or without additions of cortisol. This paper reports on the re-
suits obtained when cells were treated with actinomycin D in the absence of cortisol. The data on the effects of actinomycin D on beating cells suggest that, since there appears to be protein synthesis in the absence of RNA synthesis, there may be long-lived mRNA's (stable templates) present in the cells. Since the per cent beating curve closely follows the protein synthesis curve, it is tempting to say that the two are related, i.e. the stable templates code for proteins which are involved in beating. The evidence is only presumptive and must await further experiments on specific enzyme and structural protein analysis. with and without inhibitors, before a positive relationship between specific protein synthesis and beating can be concluded. However, the evidence that protein synthesis appears to be necessary for beating has also been suggested by Yaffe and Feldman (5). They reported that the treatment of beating rat heart cells with puromycin caused the beating to cease within 24 hr, suggesting that protein synthesis may be necessary for beating to occur or that the intracellular stability of proteins which are necessary for beating or cellular maintenance is about 24 hr. Removal of puromycin from the cultures permitted the cells to resume beating. We obtained similar results. Treatment of beating cells with actinomycin D did not inhibit beating in their experiments or ours. However, our data indicate that the loss of beating by cultured rat heart cells is not due to loss of stable template but is due to the production of some inhibitor of the stable template or to inability of the stable template to be translated into proteins essential for beating. Preferential loss of a nonbeating type of cells resulting from actinomycin-D treatment cannot explain the reinitiation of beating in cells which stop beating with age in culture. From the data presented in this paper, we suggest that there must be stable template activity demonstrable in order for potential beating cells to beat. By inhibiting shortlived template activity the cells can begin to beat. This implies that unstable template activity directs the synthesis of one or more inhibitors, or that repressors (which would be short-lived themselves) act on the stable template or translation products of this template, thus controlling or inhibiting beating. Such a control system has been described before (6). Since the heart cells were exposed to actinomycin D for several hours, caution should be exercised when the observed effects of the antibiotic
B R I E F
are interpreted in terms of its primary mechanism of action. Exposure to actinomycin D for such long periods may evoke secondary responses to the antibiotic which may, in themselves, cause the observed reinitiation of beating. However, since these secondary effects of actinomycin D are not known, the data obtained have been interpreted in terms of its known primary effect, i.e. the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. The fact that cells which never beat do not react to actinomycin D in the same manner as the other cells (Fig. 3) may be due to several factors, i.e. the cells may be accidentally obtained cultures of fibroblasts or epithelial cells, or may be cells which have become neoplastic while in culture, or they may be in a pathological state. Nevertheless, the effects of actinomycin D on these cells is different even though the source of the cells and the methods employed were the same for all the cells. The difference in the cells may also reflect the differences in the population of animals used for the actual culture.
of amino acids into protein and stopped only when incorporation stopped and the cells sloughed-off the plate. This incorporation proceeded even when greater than 95% of the RNA synthesis was inhibited as measured by 2-uridine-'4C incorporation into RNA. In the rare instances when the cultured cells did not beat or were incapable of stimulation to beat by either cortisol or actinomycin D, the presence of long-lived mRNA's was not demonstrable. This work was supported in part by United States Public Health Service grant No. HE-10018. Received for publication 26 August 1968, and in revised form 1 November 1968. REFERENCES 1. HARARY, I., and B. FARLEY. 1963. Exp. Cell Res.
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Actinomycin-D treatment of beating rat heart cells suggested the presence of one or more longlived mRNA's which may be involved in the beating phenomenon. Actinomycin-D treatment of functional cells which had stopped beating caused a reinitiation of beating. This beating paralleled the incorporation
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