School District Fragmentation And Racial Residential Segregation

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Intergenerational dynamics of white residential mobility: ility

Intergenerational dynamics of white residential mobility:ility: School desegregation and avoidance School desegregation and avoidance Racial residential segregation is a prominent feature of U.S. metropolitan areas, and one that has remained persistently high for over a century. As of 2010, nearly 60% of black

States with highly fragmented school districts have greater

lowered segregation in the state, unlike other states in the region. Fragmentation occurs to a lesser extent in states where the basic unit of school district organization is the county rather than the municipality. This county-wide pattern is more widespread in states that were more rural and

Metropolitan Schooling and Housing Integration

the Kerner Commission highlighted residential segregation as a major cause of existing school segregation, in addition to explaining the racial violence of the time. Yet, relatively little effort was spent trying to address the intertwined causes of schooling and housing segregation that might have made desegregation efforts more long-lasting.

Inequality in Children s Contexts: The Economic Segregation

structured by school district boundaries, and I find that the gap in economic segregation between households with and without children is larger in metropolitan areas with more schooling options, measured by school district fragmentation.

Ten Failures that Shaped the 20th Century American City

the fragmentation of metropolitan areas into multiple units of government is asso-ciated with residential segregation. As Rusk observes: For most Ameri-cans, smaller is better and home rule is an unassailable democratic good. But the sad reality is that the smaller the local jurisdiction or school district, the more narrow and exclusive the


Table 2. Place Fragmentation and Residential Segregation Covariation 68 Table 3. School District Fragmentation and Residential Segregation Covariation 68 Table 4. Residential Segregation and Total Number of Cities with a Minimum 10,000+ Population per 1 Million MSA Residents - Summary Findings 83 Table 5.

PUBL6343: GIS for the Urban Applications Fall, 2014 T. YUASA

Bischoff, K. (2008). School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential Segregation. Urban Affairs Review: 182-217. Oakley, D. (2008). Locational Patterns of Low

Disrupting the Reciprocal Relationship Between Housing and

segregation for families with children will also include significant racial segregation. In fact, regions with high levels of school district fragmentation tend to have significantly higher rates of racial segregation between districts.

ERICA FRANKENBERG Associate Professor of Education and

fragmentation: The relationship between school district boundaries and segregation in three southern metropolitan areas. Pennsylvania State Law Review 19(3): 687-745. McDermott, K., Frankenberg, E., & Diem, S. (2015). The post-racial politics of race: Student assignment policy in three urban school districts. Educational Policy 29(3): 504

School Desegregation Law in the 1980's: Why Isn't Anybody

school boards in their communities, where racial segregation had never been required by law, could be found in violation of Brown. They saw segregated schools in the North and West as largely the unavoidable con-sequence of segregated residential patterns. School boards could not be

Milliken Meredith and Metropolitan Segregation

residential segregation in large metropolitan areas.14 Wright v. City of Emporia15 declared that white flight must be taken into account in a court s remedial plan and that separate suburban school boundaries could not be allowed to impede the effectiveness of a desegregation remedy.16 Keyes v. School District No. 117 created

School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential

School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential Segregation: How do Boundaries Matter? Kendra Bischoff Stanford University Department of Sociology [email protected] ABSTRACT Fragmentation, or the proliferation of independent jurisdictions, is a key feature of the political structure in many metropolitan areas in the United States.

Steil Jordan FinalDraftdocx

district fragmentation within a metropolitan area are therefore associated with higher levels of between‐district racial residential segregation. 8 Given the capitalization of neighborhood attributes, such as school performance, into

Toward a Theory of Equitable Federated Regionalism in Public

Jun 18, 2011 School quality and resources vary dramatically across school district boundary lines. Students who live mere miles apart have access to disparate educational opportunities based on which side of a school district boundary line their home is located. Owing in large part to metropolitan fragmentation, most school districts and the larger localities

School District Secessions - CECR

School district fragmentation is the proliferation of autonomous school districts, jurisdictions which then retain the ability to engage in practices such as the assignment of students to schools, which rarely cross district boundaries.7 There are important consequences of school district fragmentation,

Inter-District Public School Mobility: Common Misperceptions

Inter-District Public School Mobility 8 preference for the, local control of the management of school districts, the California Department of Education leaves the drawing of district boundaries to each local district governing board. This partiality to district autonomy has led to fragmentation in the metropolitan

Missed Opportunities, Enduring Legacies: School Segregation

fragmentation, and the absence of a significant cross-district desegregation plan has reinforced racial segregation in housing and schools. Exploring the impact of schools and school administrative decisions on racial housing patterns is im­ portant in an era where the mechanisms of preserving racial segregation have

BRE V5N2 Interdistrict Mobility formatted 12.17.15

between-district segregation (p. 208). Bischoff agrees that Tiebout s model may in fact partially explain why this increased segregation occurs in fragmented regions where parents use knowledge of district resources and school performance to guide residential decisions.

Political Fragmentation and Racial Segregation in the Winston

Since the 1950s, racial segregation in the United States has been on the decline. Rates of decline, however, vary across the metropolitan areas throughout the country. Researchers demonstrate a clear relationship between racial residential segregation and the degree of political fragmentation in the area.

Consolidation Versus Fragmentation: The Relationship Between

5. Kendra Bischoff, School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential. Segregation: How Do Boundaries Matter?, 44 URB. AFF. REV. 182, 201-06 (2008). 6. See, e.g., NAT'L ACAD. OF EDUC., RACE-CONSCIOUS POLICIES FOR ASSIGNING STUDENTS TO SCHOOLS: SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH AND THE SUPREME COURT CASES 15-

Racial Segregation and Public School Expenditure

on public school expenditure both at the MSA and at the district level. At the same time, we find that increased segregation leads to more inequality in spending across districts of the same MSA, thus worsening the relative position of poorer districts. Keywords: segregation, racial fragmentation, public school expen-diture

New Jersey s Segregated Schools Trends and Paths Forward

Apr 08, 2017 schools in the 2015-16 school year.3 The fragmentation of districts within metro areas and the serious residential segregation mean that segregation is mostly between districts not within districts. It has the eleventh largest school enrollment among the states. The biggest school


school segregation throughout the South, beginning after Reconstruction and continuing through 1954 and beyond. Brown also reminds us of the state-sponsored history of housing segregation in this country. Both before and after Brown, this system of state-sponsored segregation was replicated in federal, state and local housing policy.

School Diversity, School District Fragmentation and

school segregation, then, requires a better understanding of, and more creative solutions aimed at, this policy problem. The goal of this article is to explore the policy dynamics and dilemmas created by between-district segregation and school district fragmentation in terms of efforts to diversify schools. We first review existing research to

Winter 2021 The Fund for New Jersey News

This report explores whether school district fragmentation and the lack of housing options contribute to residential segregation both by income and race. In this report, NJF compared New Jersey s 21 counties with a set of counties in nearby states where public education is organized differently. This comparison helps to see if the degree of

American Sociological Review Inequality in Children s

neighborhood segregation, income segregation, school district fragmentation, school district segregation, income inequality Downloaded from at UNIV OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA on April 27, 2016

When Is a School Segregated? - Urban

Considering segregation as a characteristic of school systems, however, offers little guidance to policymakers interested in reducing segregation by focusing on the schools that exacerbate school system segregation. To fill this gap, we have developed a method for measuring an individual school s contribution to system-level racial segregation.

New Study Finds School Segregation on Long Island is Double

Black-white segregation is worse than Hispanic-white segregation, but Hispanic-white school segregation has been steadily increasing since the late 1980s, as the Hispanic population has grown to become the largest non-white racial/ethnic group in Long Island s schools. Although there are some exceptions, schools in the same district aren t that

Household Neighborhood Decisionmaking and Segregation

hood racial composition, all exert significant influence on household locational decisions.7 As one might expect, higher levels of school district fragmentation within a metropolitan area are therefore associated with higher levels of between-district racial residential segregation.8

Charter School Effects on School Segregation

between-district segregation caused by charter schools is concentrated in metropolitan areas with high school district fragmentation. Our analysis constitutes a compelling case for the notion that charter schools lead to slightly higher levels of racial and ethnic segregation, on average. But we do not take a normative stance on this result.

Inequality in Children s Contexts - NYU School of Law

Apr 09, 2014 School District Fragmentation One feature that may shape between-district economic segregation is school district fragmentation. Some metro areas are comprised of many municipalities, each with its own school district. Others are comprised of just a few school districts, which serve multiple municipalities.

Why Boundaries Matter -

in history, a moment of rapid change in residential patterns, presents both possibility and caution. The result of the demographic shifts described in more detail below could be either greater racial/ethnic and socio‐economic integration or a renewed system of segregation and inequality.

Undercover Power: Examining the Role of the Executive Branch

the scope and duration of mandatory school desegregation consent decrees, 13 school segregation has risen steadily for several years. Also due in large measure to the persistence of residential segregation, 14 school segregation is at 10. While racial integration policies are by no means the sole avenue to address persistent

By the Poverty & Race Research Actio n - IDRA EAC- South

: School segregation has serious consequences for educational opportunity and success. Across the nation, school segregation by race and poverty is deepening and varies by state. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data, this study explores the relationship between fragmentation the degree

Splintering School Districts: Understanding the Link between

changed the nature of segregation. School segregation remained high from 1960 to 2005, but while in the late 1960s segregation of students was predominantly within districts, by 2005 segregation was primarily between districts. Over time, school district boundary lines gained meaning in terms of the characteristics of the district residents.

segregation and educational opportunity

segregation and educational opportunity new evidence from population data sean f. reardon stanforduniversity. october, 2017

Racial Segregation and Public School Expenditure

school expenditure both at the MSA and at the district level. At the same time, increased segregation leads to more inequality in spending across districts of the same MSA, thus worsening the relative position of poorer districts. Keywords: segregation, racial fragmentation, public school expen-diture

Rethinking Tiebout: The Contribution of Political

and Gary Orfield. School District Lines Stratify Educational Opportunity by Race and Poverty. Race and Social Problems 7 (2015): 5 20; Kendra Bischoff. School District Fragmentation and Racial Residential Segregation: How Do Boundaries Mat-ter? Urban Affairs Review 44 (2008): 182 217; Erica Fran-kenberg.


fragmentation in metropolitan areas to education and residential segregation. This research was conducted as a sequential mixed method multiple embedded case study to answer the following question: How does housing and school policy function together to impact the racial and economic segregation between Lower Merion School District

Inequality in Children s Contexts: Income Segregation of

than racial segregation among all households (Iceland et al. 2010; Logan et al. 2001), and school-aged children experience more racial segregation between neighborhoods than all residents (Jargowsky 2014). Higher racial residential segregation among families with children and lower racial segregation among single-adult households prompts a