Permanent Swamp Vegetation Of The Upper Nile

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Geographical Setting -

A Guelta is a peculiar type of wetland such as a marsh or swamp. It is formed when underground water in lowland depressions spills to the surface and creates permanent pools and reservoirs without visible flow. It can be pools in the beds of Wadis (White 1983).

Ishmael B. M. Kosamu 1,2,*, Wouter T. de Groot 2,3

swamp vegetation (sudd), floating vegetation and open water. In the southern part, this pattern is interspersed with islands with saline soils and palm trees. Table 1 shows the typical flora and fauna found at the Elephant Marsh. Table 1. Typical flora and fauna at the Elephant Marsh. Scientific Name English Name Flora Nymphaea odorata Water Lily

Estimation of ungauged Bahr el Jebel flows based on upstream

hydrological assessments of the swamp system with its sig-nificant importance for the economies and lives of people in the area. 1 Introduction Mongalla, a town situated at the upper reach of the White Nile, here called the Bahr el Jebel, is the key gauging station for inflows into the Sudd swamps of southern Sudan, one of the world largest


and perennial crops such as permanent fruit trees on the small or commercial level 2 Natural forest land Natural vegetation area composed of undisturbedanddisturbed,eitherormixof evergreen, deciduous, and semideciduous with the area exceeding 0.5ha, height≥2m, and canopy cover ≥20% 3 Grazing land Land with shrubs/bushes canopy covers


The Bahr el Ghazal is unique among the Nile tributaries in that its outflow to the White Nile is almost negligible. The rainfall of 1200-1400 mm in the upper basin is the highest in the Sudan and gives rise to a number of seasonal tributaries, which converge towards the confluence of the Bahr el Ghazal with the White Nile (Fig. 5.1). These

Wetland Restoration as Part of an IWRM Approach to Ensuring

Upper Nile, and Kyoga Water Management Zones (WMZs) delineation is based The extent of degradation or decline in wetland coverage in the two basins that overlay Kamwenge District is 53.8% in the Lake Victoria Basin and 14.7% in the Lake Albert Basin.


the vegetation followed the botanical investigations of Migahid and others (Migahid, 1948, 1952). They identified the main species of the permanent swamp as Cyperus papyrus, Vossia cuspidata, Phragmites communis and Typha australis and identified the main controls as water depth, current velocity and ground level.

A Bibliography on the River Nile Vol. II Literature Published

M. M. Ali, 2006. Shoreline vegetation of Lake Nubia, Sudan. Hydrobiologia 570: 101-105. P. A. Aloo, 2003. Biological diversity of the Yala Swamp lakes, with special emphasis on fish species composition, in relation to changes in the Lake Victoria Basin (Kenya): threats and conservation measures. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(5): 905-920.


On the basis of vegetation maps, Uganda's wetlands are estimated to cover 29,589 km2, consisting of 8,832 km2 of swamp , 365 km2 of swamp forest , and 20,392 km2 being wetland sites with impeded drainage, but many small sites will be missed in this inventory (Mafabi & Taylor 1993).

A synthesis of past, current and future research for

for livelihoods activities such as agriculture, livestock herding and vegetation harvesting. The papyrus vegetation can recover during the rainy season when the dry zone is re-flooded, unless permanent changes are made to vegetation, water or soils by digging channels or removal of rhizomes (e.g. in Namatala wetland Uganda; Namaalwa et al. 2013).

Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS)

grading from open water and submerged vegetation, floating fringe vegetation, seasonally inundated woodland, rain-fed and river-fed grasslands and finally floodplain scrubland. Hydrologically the Sudd wetland is regarded as a giant filter that controls and normalizes water quality and a giant sponge that stabilizes water flow. It is the major

PERMANENT SWAMP SEASONAL SWAMPS SEASONAL RIVERS 230 CONTOURS IN M.A.M.S.L Figure I. The Okavango Delta. NGAMI 23E have and are being developed along the Okavango River (Pallett, 1997). Althouoh the Okavango region has been inhabited for more than 30 000 years (Thomas & Shaw, 1991), it has never been

Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction-Induced Forest

(permanent and seasonal), and dry upper plain lowland rain forests [3]. The hydrological boundaries between these ecological zones are imperceptible; so also are some of the forest zones particularly the fringing of the mangrove forest and freshwater swamp forest. It is also the largest wetland in Africa with rich biological diver-sity [1] [4]-[8].

throughout the region for a least a millennium.' The standard

plains, where woodland can be found, permanent villages built and cultivation undertaken. The combination of soil types and slight elevation produce four main vegetation areas: permanent swamp (mostly along the Bahr al-Jabal and Bahr al-Zaraf), river-flooded grasslands (the dry season pastures, or toic, along


a)Permanent / perennial rivers. b)Seasonal rivers. Permanent rivers are those that flow throughout the year. Examples include: Nile, Tana, Pangani, Katonga Seasonal rivers are those that flow only during the rainy season. Examples include: Agago, Mpago, Turkwel , Laghbon. Terms connected to rivers A source of river where a river starts


swamp forests, permanent swamps, marshes and seasonal flood plains. Permanent wetlands and swamps of South Sudan make up approximately estimates 32,216.5 km2 ( 5 % of the total area of South Sudan), while a much greater area, both north and south, is seasonally flooded with about 64,433 km2 (10%of the total area of South Sudan) The largest

Ecosystems & Ecophysiology Lecture 5 Wetlands

J Sudd. Mats of floating vegetation, especially papyrus in the upper Nile, Sudan. Rhizomes of sedge Cyperus papyrus, colonised by other species Consequence of anoxic soils, shallow roots break free from substrate after storms, plants float because of air tissues.


Victoria Nile (includes River Nile flows), and the remaining 3.82m3/s from the Lumbuye Catchment as shown in Figure 6. When looking at the scale of the whole Victoria Nile Catchment, water resources is plentiful and much higher than water demand. However, this resource is concentrated in the River Nile and looking at finer

Cahora Bassa retrospective, 1974 1997: effects of flow

through a mosaic of alluvial grassland and swamp forest (the Marromeu Complex) some 100 km inland from the coast, and a mangrove deltaic sys-tem with a sea frontage of about 290 km (e.g. TINLEY & SOUSA DIAS 1973). An extensive review of the basin can be found in D AVIES (1986). The river com-prises three segments: Upper (1,078 km), from

Major Soils of the World

Land use and management. Many floodplains have a natural swamp vegetation. Tidal plains in coastal areas are normally under mangroves or other halophyte vegetation. Fluvisols are grown to a wide range of crops or are under grassland. They are usually fertile but may need flood control through polders, dikes and drainage.

HRPP 354 and large scale spatial rainfall data

swamp system with its significant importance for the economies and lives of people in the area. Keywords CHARM, Mongalla, Nile, torrents, Lake Albert, ungauged basins 1 Introduction Mongalla, a town situated at the upper reach of the White Nile, here called the Bahr el Jebel, is the key gauging station for inflows


The White Nile traverses the country from south to north and forms the Sudd, a vast swamp, which measures 30,000 - 40,000 km2 in extent. The Sudd Wetland is one of the main hydrological features of South Sudan and is created by the overflow of the Nile over an extensive area. This area is composed of permanent and seasonal swamps.


Swamp L. Turkana (L. Rudolf) Kenamuke Swamp Kobowen Swamp W h i t N i l e a h r e z Z a r a f W h i t e N i l e NILE WARRAP WESTERN BAHR EL GHAZAL UGANDA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC ETHIOPIA KENYA DEM. REP. OF THE CONGO SUDAN 12 ° 10° 8° 6° 4° 12 ° 6° 4° 22° 26° 28 ° 30 34 36 24 ° 26 28 30 32° 34° 36 0 100 0 100 mi 200 km National


1) Culiseta melanura Cedar Swamp or Black-tailed Mosquito Not a problem biter for humans; it s a species of wet woodlands, with larvae often found in stump holes of maple-gum swamps; adults feed in the forest s upper canopy, and as such are a primary EEE vector among birds; also found WNV-positive in the field.

Articles Fish, Floods, and Ecosystem Engineers: Aquatic

movements create incised, vegetation-free pathways through which water can flow during flooding (flgur e 4). These chan-nels may become major river channels when the old channels fill with sand and avulse. In the panhandle and permanent swamp areas, hippos regularly break through the dense

Threats and Opportunities to Major Rift Valley Lakes Wetlands

in the upper watersheds, loss of Acacia woodlands, lake shore farming and destruction of buffer zones. Other critical threats include siltation, water abstraction, overfishing and release of pollutants into the lake system [14,15] (Figure 1-3). Figure 1: Wetland vegetation in Ziwaylake is getting depleted due to shoreline farming.

Ramsar Information Sheet

area, was blocked by sand dunes driven from the Nile in the historic times. This blocking caused the Na aman river to flow northwards and confluent the Mediterranean near Akko, leaving behind a remarkable swamp as a barrier for any traffic to the city from the southern side. Hydrology: The annual water level in the ponds is changed within 0-1


to swamp formation. The Upper Lake is completely filled with water and is surrounded by dense vegetation (Saleh, 1984). The Lower Lake is changing all the time. The maximum water depth recorded in the Lower Lake is 23 m. The Upper Lake is less saline (1.52-1.94 g/l) than the lower one (14.3-17.33 g/l). In the lower lake, salinity

Stable oxygen isotopic composition early-Holocene gastropods

eastwards towards the White Nile some 15 km north of Jebel Aulia (Figure 1B). Today this region is semi-arid. It has approxi-mately 150-200 mm of rainfall, that falls mainly during a three-month monsoonal rainy season. The silts and loams of the region are subject to high evaporation and support a sparse vegetation of

University of Groningen The Kenyan hippo Kanga, Erustus Mutembei

the Mara Swamp and discharging into Lake Victoria (Fig. 1.1). Thus, the Mara River is part of the Lake Victoria drainage system and the greater Nile River Basin. The lowlands and wooded savannah grasslands that form the Maasai pastoral ranches, MMNR and northern SNP receive an average annual rainfall ranging from


four deep permanent crater lakes at Bishoftu. Until recently, a fifth crater contained a swamp three feet deep with a dense and varied flora round its edges. In November 1946, this swamp teemed with duck and water birds, but during 1947, probably due to volcanic action, the water disappeared and this promising locality is now a ploughed field.


Hazard a hazard is an act or phenomenon that has the potential to produce harm or other undesirable consequences to a person or thing. Vulnerability Vulnerability is susceptibility to physical injury, harm, damage or economic

International Livestock Centre for Africa

Some useful research, nevertheless, has been conducted in the African countries represented here. Because the small-scale Livestock producers in the tropics and subtropics have Limited

full -

approximate seasonal extent of swamp 1950 approximate seasonal extent of swamp 1980 line of Jonglei canal 100 Fig. 5.9 Map of the Sudd (after Howell et al., 1988). The pattern of flooding appears to be fairly similar to that described for the upper reaches, with spill spreading from the river to inundate a wide area but with some spill

Socio-economic dimensions of conservation of wetlands in

Congo River swamps; the Sudd in the upper Nile, Lake Victoria basin swamps, Chad basin swamps and the flood plains and deltas associated with major rivers, such as Niger and Zambezi. In Eastern Africa, wetlands cover over about 4% of the total area. The major wetlands occur in Lake Victoria basin, in the rift valley and in the floodplains and


it enters the Okavango Delta (Fig. 1), also the upper Zaire River with its associated vegetation (Fig. 2). Levees are seen further downstream in the Okavango, and they are also evident where the Nile traverses the Sudan in the Sudd Swamp region. The levees along the Nile River in the Sudd

Roberts Namibia Wildlife

Still or low current conditions. Emergent aquatic vegetation provides cover and food. Backwaters , floodplain pools and emergent vegetation and permanent swamp dwellers. Channel emergent / floating vegetation stands such as papyrus, reed beds and, lily-pad beds, along water margins and in backwaters and

A sensitivity study on the role of the swamps of southern

imately 7,000 km2 of permanent swamps to 90,000 km2 of seasonal floodplain, while the total catchment area of the Sudd is nearly 3,000,000 km2. Early studies at MITshowed a large area of swamp for the Bahar El Ghazal (Shamseddin et al. 2006), while Gaudet and Eagleson (1984) estimated the permanent swamp to be about 40,000 km2. In addition,

Political Ecology in the Upper Nile: the Twentieth Century

plains, where woodland can be found, permanent villages built and cultivation undertaken. The combination of soil types and slight elevation produce four main vegetation areas: permanent swamp (mostly along the Bahr al-Jabal and Bahr al-Zaraf), river-flooded grasslands (the dry season pastures, or toic, along

Sudan (Republic of)

(10,000) can be considered as permanent swamp, Thompson (1985) gives an area of 80,000 km² of seasonal swamp and 8,000 km2 of permanent swamp, whereas Denny (1993) subdivides the Swamps of the Upper Nile into 16,000 km² of permanent swamp, 15,000 km² of seasonal swamp, and 70,000 km² of rain-induced floodplain.