Changes In Upper Airway Muscle Activation And Ventilation During Phasic REM Sleep In Normal Men

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119-126 119 Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: From Phenotype

During normal sleep, some protective mechanisms assure partial patency of the upper airway. There are more than 20 skeletal muscles with tonic and phasic activity that constitute the pharyngeal mucosa, playing a role in airway dilatation and wall stiffening. In REM-sleep, this activity is reduced by muscle atonia.

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders - CHEST Home

timing of muscular activation of the upper airway is crucial to normal respiratory functioning particularly during sleep. The data cited previously fit quite nicely into the most comprehensive and parsimonious theory con­ cerned with the pathophysiology of occlusion of the airway during sleep. This theory, suggested by Rem­

Romanian Journal of Rhinology, Vol. 3, No. 10, April - June

bre, the muscles have a tonic and a phasic activation, including the sternohyoid and genioglossus muscles. Muscle tone increases during inspiration and decreas-es during expiration. This activation is CO2 sensitive: hypercapnia increases airway muscle phasic activation. During sleep, the response to CO2 seems to be dimin-ished.


Pharyngeal dilator muscle activation mainly counteracts the collapsing forces of the airway. Sleep results in reduced pharyngeal muscle activity due to a reduction of input from respiratory drive centers and negative pressure receptors. This produces a reduced ability to prevent the collapsibility of the pharyngeal airway.

Arthur C. Corcoran Memorial Lecture

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, there is a reduction in tone of the respiratory muscles except for the diaphragm.13 events. Simultaneously, a decrease in sensitivity of the central che-moreceptors occurs.14 Consequently, ventilation decreases to levels even lower than that seen during NREM sleep, and Paco 2

Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Apr 01, 2021 control system [8,9]. Given that airway obstruction in OSA only occurs during sleep, the combination of an anatomical predisposition combined with sleep state-dependent changes in non-anatomical contributors is crucial in driving OSA [10 12]. Table 1. Pathophysiological obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) traits. Impaired anatomy: Upper airway

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muscle response to CO 2 stimulation during NREM sleep. Sleep 2006;29:470e7. 14. Horner RL, Innes JA, Murphy K, et al. Evidence for reflex upper airway dilator muscle activation by sudden negative airway pressure in man. J Physiol (Lond) 1991;436:15e29. 15. WilkinsonV,MalhotraA,NicholasC,etal.Discharge patterns of human genioglossus motor units

Is It Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

3. Wiegand L, Zwillich CW, Wiegand D, White DP. Changes in upper airway muscle activation and ventilation during phasic REM sleep in normal men. J Appl Physiol 1991;71:488-97. 4. Popovic RM, White DP. Influence of gender on waking genioglos-sal electromyogram and upper airway resistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:725-31. 5. Popovic RM