# Algorithms For Delay Constrained Group Multicast Routing

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### Multicast Routing with End-to-End Delay and Delay Variation

disruptive to the multicast session. Index Terms Delay constrained multicast communication, multicast routing. I. INTRODUCTION IN multicast communication, messages are concurrently sent to multiple destinations, all members of the same multicast group. Mechanisms to support such a form of communication

### Evaluation of Multicast Routing Algorithms for Real- Time

1.2 Classification of MC Routing Algorithms MC routing algorithms can be classified into one of two categories. Shortest paths algo rithms attempt to minimize the cost of each path from the source node to a multicast group member node. Bertsekas and Gallager (1992) describe several shortest paths al gorithms.

### Delay Bounded Multi-Source Multicast in Software-Defined

In recent years, a lot of research has been devoted to the development of multicast routing algorithms to construct a delay constrained Steiner tree. S. Li et al. [19] considered an algorithm for constructing delay bounded minimum cost multicast trees. This idea and several other solutions were proposed in the literature.

### Algorithms for delay constrained group multicast routing

Algorithms for delay constrained group multicast routing Kun-Cheng Tsain,y and Chyouhwa Chenz Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan SUMMARY Multicast routing allows network sources to use network resources eﬃciently by sending only a single copy of data to all group members.

### Priority-Based Distribution Trees for Application-Level Multicast

receiver pair. The multicast distribution tree is then constructed such that the higher the priority, the more direct the path from the sender to the packet s destination and the lower the resulting end-to-end delay. This algorithm can be used to realize application-level multicast for delay-sensitive applications such as networked computer

### Evaluation of Multicast Routing Algorithms for Real-Time

Optimal algorithms for constructing delay-constrained minimum Steiner trees exist [12] 3 , but their average execution times are prohibitively large, because the problem is NP-complete [13]. Several delay-constrained Steiner tree heuristics have been proposed during the past few years [13, 14, 15].

### Exact Algorithm to Solve the Minimum Cost Multi-Constrained

2. The Multi-Constrained QoS Multicast Routing Problem Often, multimedia applications require multi-constrained multicast routes. For each destination of agiven multicast group, the route should meet a set of QoS requirements such as limited delay, jitter, bandwidth, loss rate etc. Indeed, generally the source based

### Application of ant colony optimization for Multicasting in MANET

multicast, efficient multicast routing is crucial. For delay-sensitive multimedia applications, such as real-time teleconferencing, etc.it seems more important to find a delay-constrained minimum-cost multicast tree, which has been proven to be a NP-complete problem [2]. Currently many heuristics algorithms have been

### Core-Selection Algorithms in Multicast Routing

delay-constrained cost optimization, i.e., delivering the stream to the receivers at minimum cost while meeting a given upper bound for end-to-end delay. Multicast routing protocols evolved parallel to the growth in Internet size and coverage from broadcast routing that transmits to all but not just a subset of domain nodes. Earlier protocols

### IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL

degree-constrained minimum-delay multicast tree [26]. Yamaguchi et al. described a distributed algorithm that maintains a degree-constrained delay-sensitive multicast tree for a dynamic group [27]. The above algorithms are designed for a single source and are therefore not suitable when there are many potential sources (such as in distributed

### A Delay-Constrained Shortest Path Algorithm for Multicast

algorithms are examined and compared with the proposed algorithm via simulation. Keywords: Multicast Routing, Multimedia Applications, Real-Time Networks, Delay Constrained Tree. 1. Introduction Handling group communication is a key requirement for numerous applications that have one source sends the

### A Survey on Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc

constrained routing. 2. A multiple-link-constrained problem: two or more link constraints are imposed to construct feasible trees such as bandwidth- and buffer-constrained routing. 3. A tree-constrained problem: a tree constraint is imposed to construct feasible trees such as delay-constrained routing. 4.

### Multicast routing for multimedia communication - Networking

S. called the multicast group. Given a delay tolerance A, a constrained spanning free T is a tree, rooted at s, that spans the nodes in S such that for each node v in S, the delay on the path from s to 1' is bounded above by A. Formally, for each 11 E S, if P(c~. 11) is the path in T from s to v, VD(p) < A e € P(s 1 )

### MULTI-CONSTRAINED MULTICAST ROUTING IMPROVED BY HYBRID

to be used for solving the QoS multicast routing problem. The algorithm pro-posed here generates a set of delay compelled links to each destination present in a multicast group. Then, the bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA) selects the paths to all destinations sensibly from the set of least delay paths to construct a multicast tree.

### New Strategies and Approaches for Efficient Overlay Multicast

Keywords: multicast overlay routing algorithms, end-to-end quality of service, delay and delay-variation constrained routing, core selection 1. Introduction IP multicast service has been widely accepted as the way to implement multicast for the past decade.

### Multiobjective Multicast Routing Algorithm for Traffic

tree for a given multicast group is NP-hard [3]. So, this paper improves a Multiobjective Multicast Routing Algorithm (MMA) presented in [4], to find a multicast tree optimizing several objective functions. In contrast to mono-objective algorithms [2, 3, 5], MMA finds a set of optimal solutions by

### A ELAY CONSTRAINED IN MULTICAST OUTING USING JIA ALGORITHM

The Distributed multicast routing protocol under delay constraints, is one of the software, which requires simultaneous transmission of message from a source to a group of destinations within specified time delay. For example. Video Conferencing system. Multicast routing is to find a routing tree which is routed from

### A QoS-aware multicast routing protocol - Selected Areas in

cently, several QoS multicast routing algorithms have been pro-posed to find feasible trees. Some algorithms [5], [6] provide heuristic solutions to the NP-completeconstrained Steiner tree problem, which is to find the delay-constrained least-cost mul-ticast trees. These algorithms, however, are not practical in the

### A GRASP Heuristic for the Delay-Constrained Multicast Routing

e cient multicast routing protocols that provide the necessary Quality of Service while minimizing the use of network resources. The routing algorithms used in these protocols usually attempt to ﬂnd a minimum cost tree that includes the source and all the destination nodes, while attempting to satisfy the delay constraint and other QoS demands.

### The Application of Steiner Trees to Delay Constrained

additional constraints giving rise to the constrained MStTG (CMStTG) problem. This paper is concerned with delay constrained multicast routing (the DCMR problem). This problem can be reduced to the Constrained Minimum Steiner Tree Problem in Graphs (CMStTG), where the contraint is the maximum end-to-end delay from the source to any destination.

### QoS-Constrained Core Selection Algorithm for Multicast Routing

In multicast routing,the incorporation of a QoS guarantee is an important issue, together with scalability and reliability. In general,existing core-based multicast routing protocols construct only the shortest paths between the core and members in a multicast group without taking into consideration the QoS. If there is little variation in the

### CAC and QoS routing - TNG Group

Composite multicast routing problems Elementary multicast routing problems can be combined to create composite routing problems LCLO, MLC (Multi-link constrained: Bandwidth buffer-constrained), LCTC, TCLO can be solved in polynomial time LCTO, TCTO, and MTC (Multi-tree constrained: delay-delay jitter constrained) are NP if

### DIPLOMA PROJECT Distributed Delay Constrained Multicast

A comparison of these dynamic multicast routing algorithms was presented in. In the dynamic multicast routing problem, the members of the multicast group are dynamically changing. Let us take a snapshot of the multicast group and denote it by S. Suppose that a static multicast routing algorithm is applied to find a multicast tree for S in G.

### Fault Recover:y for a Distributed QoS-based Multicast Routing

The constrained Steiner tree (CST) problem (or delay- constrained multicast routing problem) can be stated as follows. Given a network G = (V, E) with n nodes, a source node s (s E V), a set of m destination nodes S (S 5: V - (s)) called multicast group, and a delay constraint A, find a tree T (T 5 G) rooted at s that spans the nodes in S

### AN EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR SHORTEST PATH MULTICAST ROUTING

the problem of shortest path multicast routing under delay and delay variation constraints can be formulated as follows: Given a directed, simple, connected weighted graph G(V,E), multicast group M⊆ V, a multicast source node s∈V , a delay constraint ∆, and a delay variation constraint δ where δ < ∆.

### A Genetic Algorithm for Steiner Tree Optimization with

The bandwidth-delay-constrained least-cost multicast routing is a of efficient multicast routing algorithms. Multicast employs a tree structure deliver the same data stream to a group of

### 0764) Volume 05 Issue 06, November 2016 Tree Growth Based ACO

Bandwidth-Delay-Constrained Least-Cost Multicast Routing Problem Moheb R. Girgis*, Tarek M. Mahmoud, Ghada W. Hanna Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt *Email: moheb.girgis [AT] mu.edu.eg Abstract Quality of service (QoS) multicast routing is an NP multi-objective optimization problem.

### An Iterative Local Search Approach based on Fitness

Landscapes Analysis for the Delay-constrained Multicast Routing Problem Ying Xu 1 Rong Qu2 1College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University Changsha, 410082, CHINA [email protected] 2 The Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning (ASAP) Group School of Computer Science, The University of Nottingham Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK

### PAPER Heuristic and Exact Algorithms for QoS Routing with

2838 IEICE TRANS. COMMUN., VOL.E85 B, NO.12 DECEMBER 2002 PAPER Heuristic and Exact Algorithms for QoS Routing with Multiple Constraints∗ Gang FENG †, Kia MAKKI ,NikiPISSINOU, and Christos DOULIGERIS††, Nonmembers

### Multicast routing algorithms: a survey

algorithms. First, we describe the multicast routing problem and the difficulties in routing multicast connections. Then, we provide a classification of multicast routing algorithms according to many different criteria. Finally, we present the main steps of several multicast routing algorithms, as well as comparison results among them.

### Multicast Routing Problem in Communication Networks: State of

proposed for routing problem. Index Terms Multicast routing, optimization problem, neural networks, QoS. I. INTRODUCTION. In recent years multicast routing has become more and more popular, and has motivated several researchers, because of the progress in the area of multimedia communications, file sharing, interactive games,

### E cient multicast routing with delay constraints

Chung et al. proposed algorithms for the degree-constrained multicast trees. Rouskas and Baldine studied the multicast routing with end-to-end delay and delay variation constraints. Kompell et al.,1 proposed a well-known Constrained Steiner Tree (CST #) heuristic. This heuristic consists

### Delft University of Technology MAMCRA: a constrained-based

A Constrained-Based Multicast Routing Algorithm Fernando Kuipers and Piet Van Mieghem Delft University of Technology, Information Technology and Systems, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands. June 19, 2001 Abstract Multicast routing algorithms that are capable of providing quality of service (QoS) to its

### A GRASP approach for the delay-constrained multicast routing

search strategy for the Delay-Constrained Least-Cost (DCLC) multicast routing problems. A large number of simulations carried out on the benchmark problems in the OR-library and a group of randomly generated graphs demonstrate that the proposed GRASP algorithm with VNS is highly efficient in solving the DCLC multicast routing problem.

### An Enhanced Safety Algorithm for Network QoS Multicast

solve the QoS routing problem [9, 10]; Wang Xinhong, et al put forward a delay constrained least cost multicast routing selection method based on immune genetic algorithms [11-13]; Zhao Xiuping, et al raised a multiple constrained QoS multicast routing selection method based on immune genetic algorithm.

### Comparison of Multicast Algorithm Evaluation Results in Low

of routing algorithms with regard to the amount of mul-ticast participants, compared to the number of nodes in the network { the so-called multicast saturation. Based on that statement, a selection of multi-criterion multicast algo-rithms (solving the MCMST { multi-constrained minimal Steiner tree problem) were compared for di erent multi-

### MULTICAST ROUTING BASED ON A HEURISTIC GENETIC ALGORITHM

The problem of computing the Bandwidth-Delay- Constrained least-cost QOS multicast routing is an NP- Complete problem. We present a new eficient heuristic algorithm for the QOS multicast routing that depends on bounded end-to-end delay and link bandwidth along the path from the source to each destinations, and minimum cost of Steiner tree.

### A Variable Descent Search Algorithm for Delay-Constrained

delay-constrained, least-cost multicast routing problem. It outperforms other algorithms and heuristics over a range of problem instances. 1 Introduction The general problem of multicast routing has received signi cant research at-tention in the area of computer networks and algorithmic network theory [1{3].

### Power Proximity Based Key Management for Secure Multicast in

the multicast group [30]. Since everyone shares the SEK, members need to hold additional Key Encryption Keys (KEK) that are used to securely distribute the SEK to each valid member. The key management problem is to ensure that only legitimate members of the multicast group hold valid keys at any time during a multicast session.

### Multiple constraints QoS multicast routing optimization

Special report Multiple constraints QoS multicast routing optimization algorithm in MANET based on GA Baolin Suna,c,*, Shangchao Pib, Chao Guia, Yue Zengd, Bing Yana, Wenxiang Wangc, Qianqing Qinc