The Importance Of Twin Studies For Individual Differences Research

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Attachment at an Early Age (0-5) and its Impact on Children s

These individual differences are not genetically determined but are rooted in interactions with the social environment during the first few years of life. Sensitive or insensitive parenting plays a key role in the emergence of secure or insecure attachments, as has been documented in twin studies and experimental intervention studies. In the

The How, Why, What, When, and Who of Happiness: Mechanisms

Although individual differences in biology and circumstances combine to explain part of the happiness puzzle, a gap exists in the explained variance (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, et al., 2005).

Bureaucracy and Entrepreneurship

more recent research does provide supporting evidence. Saxenian s (1994) historical and qualitative comparison of Silicon Valley and Boston s Route 128, for example, attributes the differences in entrepreneurial activity in the two regions to differences in the size distribution of local high technology firms.

Table of Contents

research in prostate cancer. Similar to the first year, during the second year of this grant reporting period, the collaborative team of USU-CPDR and UDC identified critical areas of prostate cancer research and developed structured research projects for students focusing on: molecular genetics and biological

Nancy L. Segal, Ph.D.

1989 Award for Contributions to Scientific Research Sigma Delta Epsilon (National Organization of Women in Science), Minneapolis, MN This award is given to a single individual in recognition of contributions to scientific research, as voted by the membership. 1989 Mary Haga Travel Award

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Interplay between heritability

the importance of those factors are comparable with other twin studies worldwide [7-10]. A meta-analysis estimated that, for men and women, 37% and 55% of the variance in smoking initiation was due to genetic factors, and 49% and 24% due to shared environmental factors [11]. In this paper we look at differences in heritability esti-

Nature, Nurture, and Development: From Evangelism through

signs (most particularly twin and adoptee studies) to quantify the relative strength of genetic and nonge-netic factors with respect to population variance; that is, individual differences with respect to some trait or disorder (McGuffin & Rutter, in press; Rutter et al., 1990; Rutter, Silberg, O Connor, & Simonoff, 1999a).

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

importantly, all sizable twin studies of sexual orientation recruited probands by means of advertisements in homophile publications or by word of mouth ( ). Such sampling is likely to result in volunteer bias that affects twin concordances and heritability analyses ( ), though it is

Why do Identical Twins Differ in Personality: Shared

Since behavior genetic studies agree in that about half of the variance explaining individual differences in personality is caused by environmental factors, efforts have been made the last years to identify such factors in MZ twin studies. After decades of statistical modeling, steps are now taken to

Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on

May 18, 2015 identified 2,748 relevant twin studies, published between 1958 and 2012. Half of these were published after 2004, with sample sizes per study in 2012 of around 1,000 twin pairs (Supplementary Table 2). Each study could report on multiple traits measured in one or several samples. These 2,748 studies reported on 17,804 traits. Twin

Genetic and environmental influences on the developmental

Jan 15, 2020 on 8,958 twin pairs (3,108 MZ twin pairs and 5,850 DZ twin pairs) from the Twins Early Development Study were analysed. CU traits were assessed at ages 7, 9, 12 and 16 by mothers and analysed using a biometric latent growth model. Results: Individual differences in the baseline level of CU traits were highly heritable (76.5%), while the

Genetic susceptibility to burnout in a Swedish twin cohort

importance for individual differences in burnout symp-toms in the two sexes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on burnout using Pines BM in a population based Swedish twin cohort including same- and opposite sexed twins. Methods Participants

Fatigue symptoms in relation to neuroticism, anxiety

of later twin studies suggest non-negligible sex differences in the genetic architecture of fatigue measured both as dichotomous CFS variants [14] and as a continuous symptom measure [15]. Thus, twin research so far provides little consensus with regard to sex differences in genetic and environmental contributors to fatigue.

Behavioral Genetics: The Science of - Duke Law Research

interaction are of major importance in explaining individual differences in antisocial behavior, including differences in criminal behavior. Evidence for a genetic basis of antisocial behavior stems from several different lines of research. First, behavioral genetic studies of twins and

The Importance of Heritability in Psychological Research: The

The Importance of Heritability in Psychological Research: The Case of Attitudes Abraham Tesser It is argued that differences in response heritability may have important implications for the testing of general psychological theories, that is, responses that differ in heritability may function differ-ently.

Importance of studying heterogeneity in autism

autism research. Importance of studying and recent twin studies suggest that, in understanding the meaning of individual and subgroup differences within the autism

Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota

conducted the study at the University of Minnesota [3], where Bouchard directed the Minnesota Center for Twin and Adoption Research. Bouchard, Lykken, McGue, Segal, and Tellegen studied different aspects of psychology and behavioral genetics. Many of those scientists had previously conducted twin studies.

Psychology of Individual Differences with Particular

2. The Concept of Individual Differences and Main Categories to Describe Them 2.1. The Psychology of Individual Differences 2.2. Trait as the Basic Category for Describing Individual Differences 3. Temperament as a Component of Personality 3.1. Founders of Contemporary Research on Temperament 3.1.1.


twin data and estimating environmental and genetic components of variance are now available (Neale & Cardon 1992). Owing to the availability of several large population-based twin registries in Western Europe, the United States, and Australia, the classical twin study is a popular behavioral genetic design.

Original articles A longitudinal twin study on IQ, executive

duction on twin studies and their potential for research on the etiology of individual differences in complex traits and behaviors. Next, we analyse variation in three phenotypes that are related to cognitive development. These are 1) cognitive abil-ities as assessed with a standardized IQ test, 2) executive functioning as measured with reaction

Individual Differences in the Association Between Subjective

Individual differences in the association between heart rate and self-reported stress were analyzed in relation to measures that reflect psychological well-being (self-report measures of well-being, anxiety, depression), denial coping, and physical well-being (proinflammatory biomarkers interleukin-6

Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Individual

ronmental factors to individual differences in the three major dimensions of personahty (Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism) Twin studies indi-cate, and family studies confirm within limits, the strong genetic determination of these and many other personality factors, additive genetic variance account-


ily studies, twin studies, adoption studies, and gene-environment interac- tion studies. Interpretation of the relationships observed in these studies is made ambiguous and problematic by critical methodological inadequacies in the research itself: The methodological Jaws notwithstanding, the research evidence does seem to suggest the existence

Neurobiology of intelligence: Health implications?

individual differences. Such work has shown, for example, that higher intelligence is associated with how quickly and reliably neurons can carry information. In some of the first PET neuroimaging studies of intelligence, by Richard Haier and colleagues at U. C. Irvine,

Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Critics of separated twin studies note that such similarities can be found between strangers. Researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins. 23 Adoption Studies Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest that adoptees (who may be biologically unrelated)

Nature vs nurture: Are leaders born or made? A behavior

Oct 06, 1998 A great deal of behavioral genetic research has been conducted into various personality traits, resulting in the consensus that personality is dependent on both genetic and environmental influences. The majority of twin studies has demonstrated moderate to large genetic contributions to many personality dimensions.1,2 On average, individual

Genetics and Personality

Family Studies Problem: Members of a family who share the same genes also usually share the same environment confounds genetic with environmental influences Thus, family studies are never definitive Twin Studies Estimates heritability by gauging whether identical (monozygotic or MZ) twins, who share 100 percent of genes, are more similar

Schizophrenia Across Cultures: Significant Interactions of

schizophrenia is well established in twin studies, fetal examinations of the developing brain, and genetic mapping (with at least 10 autosomes identified). Even though this disorder is biologically based, this does not mean that environmental influences from prenatal hormone exposure to beliefs systems and coping skills should be ignored. The

The Genetics of Politics: Discovery Challenges and Progress

102 parent-child teaching and learning, sibling and twin environments, passive gene-environment 103 covariance, and assortative mating [27, 39, 46, 48]. Genetic influences accounted for an even 104 greater proportion of individual differences in these analyses, whereas direct learning from

The Role of Eating Behaviours in Genetic Susceptibility to

Twin Studies The aim of twin studies is to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental influence on variation in any measuredtrait (e.g. bodyweight). The basis ofthetwinmeth-od is to compare the similarity of monozygotic twins (MZs), whoshare100%oftheirgeneticmaterial,withdizygotictwins

The Biological Basis of Crime -

Twin studies have methodological limitations that restrict the conclu-sions that can be drawn from individual studies. A very common criticism of twi~ studies is that MZ twins may share a more common environment than bz twins. For example, parents may treat MZ twins in a more simi-

The Entrepreneurial Commercialization of Science: Evidence

paths. In our context, differences among scientists who come up with twin discoveries may help to explain variation in entrepreneurial outcomes. Not only can individual differences impact entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, several studies also stress the important role of peer influence.

What Accounts for Personality Maturation

nal studies have found reliable individual differences in the timing, magnitude, and even direction of personality-trait change. So, although most young adults change in the direction of greater maturity, a nontrivial minority deviate from this trend (Roberts & Mroczek, 2008). Theories of Personality-Trait Development in Early Adulthood

Twenty-Two Invalidating Aspects of the Minnesota Study of

human behavioral differences.5 Given the lack of gene discoveries, these theories continue to be based on the results of family, twin, and adoption studies. A sizable portion of my 2015 book The Trouble with Twin Studies: A Reassessment of Twin Research in the Social and Behavioral

Heritability of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis of

and health care systems. A lot of research effort has gone into understanding the causes of individual differences in autistic behaviour, with clear evidence for genetic effects. Twin studies of the heritability of Autism Spectrum Disorders [ASD; an umbrella term denoting autism, Asperger syndrome and Pervasive Developmental

The Study of Temperament - gwern

emphasize the importance of social contexts such as those in the home and in school. Temperament research in different cultures has yielded interesting com­ parisons that implicate the importance of context, as described in the chapter by Charles Super and Sara Harkness. A major stimulus for temperament research has come from its obvious clinical

Growing Up and Growing Apart: A Developmental Meta-Analysis

However, twin studies are useful for purposes other than the estimation of heritability. Twin studies are actually within-fam-ily studies, in that more than one member of a family is studied. Longitudinal, within-family studies are needed to assess the rel-ative importance of shared and nonshared experiences of sib-lings.

Individual Differences in the Biobehavioral Etiology of Drug

research to continue to make the progress necessary for a thorough understanding of drug abuse, as well as a means for its prevention and treatment, greater concentration is needed on studies of individual differences in neurobiological factors and on studies that focus on the integration of neurobiological systems with behavioral and

The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity

The twin and adoption studies also make assumptions of random mating and lack of gene environment co-variation, including gene environment interactions and correlations.